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Academic year 2021/2022

Course ID
Teaching staff
Prof. Stefano Gotti
Dott.ssa Marilena Marraudino
Degree course
Cellular and Molecular Biology
1st year
Teaching period
To be defined
Course disciplinary sector (SSD)
BIO/16 - anatomia umana
Formal authority
Lessons optional and laboratories mandatory
Type of examination
Written and interview
Morphology, Physiology and Biology of the cell. Tissue organization. Vertebrate Anatomy. Use of computer…

Sommario del corso


Course objectives

This teaching contributes to the learning objectives included into the Neurobiological area of the Master in Cellular and Molecular Biology - Biologia Cellulare e Molecolare, providing integrated knowledge of biological systems and complex organisms;

it also enables students to deepen their knowledge and abilities in the human neuromorphology


Results of learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding skills
At the end of the teaching the student should:
- Describe the anatomical and functional structures of the nervous system
- to acquire an advanced scientific training in basic neuroscience
- Link the genesis of pathological processes with the analysis of complex systems (tissues and organs, organism).

- Ability to use software image manipulation programs and image analysis.
- Understanding the characteristics of the digital image, the principles of morphometry and statistical interpretation

Judgment autonomy
At the end of the course the student should:
- to integrate knowledge gained in neuroanatomy fields with data obtained from scientific literature
- Ability to choose between various alternatives for solving problems of image analysis

Communicative Skills
At the end of the course the student should:
- Communicate neuroscience knowledge at the dissemination or specialist level

- Presentation of the results in statistical tables


Course delivery

The teaching is articulated in 40 hours of formal in‐class lecture time for the Neuroanatomy module and in 56 hours of formal in‐class lecture time and work solving practical exercises for the Imaging module.

Practical exercises of Macro-Anatomy are provided, where possible.

Considering obviously the evolution of the COVID emergency, the entire teaching will be delivered in presence with live streaming and recording. The recorded lectures will be available on the Moodle page course.


Learning assessment methods

Neuroanatomy module:

The learning assessment is determined on the basis of a Moodle written examination (45 minutes) conducted with: true/false multiple choice questions (8 questions, total 8 points), completion of short sentences (5 sentences, total 5 points), anatomical structures figures to be recognized (4 figures, total 4 points), and one open question (total 0-4 points). The examination will focus on all teaching arguments. The maximum score is 21 points and will be converted in thirtieths (the maximum grade will be 30 cum laude).

Upon request, students can take an integrative oral examination to improve (a couple of points maximum) the results of the written test.


Imaging module:

The learning assessment is determined on the basis of the results of a series of laboratory and homeworks, a practical examination on the skills acquired during the laboratory and a final PowerPoint presentation of a plug-in of the Image J program that was not discussed during the laboratory.

The laboratory has an obligation of attendance, equal to 75%. Students can take the final exam based on the attendance obtained. Attendance will be assessed on the basis of the exercises carried out to achieve 75% of the laboratory.
The final evaluation (in thirtieths)  includes the exercises carried out during the laboratory as homeworks, the practical exam and the presentation of the plug-in.


The final grade (in thirtieths) will be the weighted arithmetic mean of the points obtained in the two modules.




from the summer session the Neuroanatomy exam returns in presence.

The student can request to take the on line written exam if he is in one of the following conditions:

  1. a) fragility
  2. b) residence or domicile outside the region;
  3. c) temporary absence from the regional territory for documentable needs.


When registering for the exam, the only indication to fall into one of the three conditions must be entered in the "Notes" field of the exam, without specifying which one. The University will be able to carry out any sample checks on what is self-certified.





Support activities

For the Imaging module weekly homework sets will be assigned, and their solution will be posted and (if time allows) discussed in class.



Neuroanatomy module:

Introduction to the course. General and Anatomical Nomenclature.

Endocrine system: hormone and receptor. Hypothalamus, pituitary gland. Epiphysis. Thyroid. Parathyroids. Pancreas. Adrenal gland. Gonads.

The integument Apparatus: skin, skin appendages, vascularization and innervation, the sensorial receptors.

Nervous system: identification, nomenclature, development, spinal cord. Brainstem, cerebellum; diencephalon; telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia). General sensorial pathway. The special senses. Motor tract. Cranial Nerves. Spinal nerves. Autonomic nervous system.


Imaging module:

Image theory. The digital image: limits, future developments, manipulation. Shooting techniques. Limits and possibilities of correction. The programs for image manipulation. The open access programs GIMP and Image J Standardization of imaging. Examples of the use of Image J: morphometric analysis, fractional area, densitometry, three-dimensional reconstructions.

Suggested readings and bibliography


Martini et al. Anatomia Umana, IV edizione - Edises;
Seeley et al. Anatomia, II edizione - Idelson Gnocchi

Seeley's - Anatomy & Physiology - Mc Graw Hill Editors

Saladin - Human Anatomy - Mc Graw Hill Editors

Gilroy - Anatomy - An essential textbook - Thieme Editor


Class schedule

Notes: See the timetable at the Class Schedule Page

Last update: 02/11/2021 12:03
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