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Academic year 2022/2023

Course ID
Stefano Gotti
Degree course
Cellular and Molecular Biology
1st year
Teaching period
To be defined
Course disciplinary sector (SSD)
BIO/16 - human anatomy
Formal authority
Lessons optional and laboratories mandatory
Type of examination
Written and interview
Morphology, Physiology and Biology of the cell. Tissue organization. Vertebrate Anatomy. Use of computer…

Sommario del corso


Course objectives

This teaching contributes to the learning objectives included into the Neurobiological area of the Master in Cellular and Molecular Biology - Biologia Cellulare e Molecolare, providing integrated knowledge of biological systems and complex organisms;

it also enables students to deepen their knowledge and abilities in the human neuromorphology


Results of learning outcomes

Knowledge and understanding skills
At the end of the teaching the student should:
- Describe the anatomical and functional structures of the nervous system
- to acquire an advanced scientific training in basic neuroscience
- Link the genesis of pathological processes with the analysis of complex systems (tissues and organs, organism).

- Ability to use software image manipulation programs and image analysis.
- Understanding the characteristics of the digital image, the principles of morphometry and statistical interpretation

Judgment autonomy
At the end of the course the student should:
- to integrate knowledge gained in neuroanatomy fields with data obtained from scientific literature
- Ability to choose between various alternatives for solving problems of image analysis

Communicative Skills
At the end of the course the student should:
- Communicate neuroscience knowledge at the dissemination or specialist level

- Presentation of the results in statistical tables


Course delivery

The teaching is articulated in 40 hours of formal in‐class lecture time for the Neuroanatomy module and in 56 hours of formal in‐class lecture time and work solving practical exercises for the Imaging module.

Practical exercises of Macro-Anatomy are provided, where possible.

All lessons will be delivered in presence.

Alternative online teaching (by streaming) may be introduced according to the University recommendations related to the status of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Learning assessment methods

Neuroanatomy module:

The learning assessment is determined on the basis of a Moodle written examination (45 minutes) conducted with: true/false multiple choice questions (8 questions, total 8 points), completion of short sentences (5 sentences, total 5 points), anatomical structures figures to be recognized (4 figures, total 4 points), and one open question (total 0-4 points). The examination will focus on all teaching arguments. The maximum score is 21 points and will be converted in thirtieths (the maximum grade will be 30 cum laude).

Upon request, students can take an integrative oral examination to improve (a couple of points maximum) the results of the written test.

Exams will take place exclusively in presence with the only exception of students who self-declare, in relation to Covid-19, personal fragility or positivity.

Remote examinations may be introduced according to the University recommendations related to the status of the COVID-19 pandemic. 


Imaging module:

The learning assessment is determined on the basis of the results of a series of laboratory and homeworks, a practical examination on the skills acquired during the laboratory and a final PowerPoint presentation of a plug-in of the Image J program that was not discussed during the laboratory.

The laboratory has an obligation of attendance, equal to 75%. Students can take the final exam based on the attendance obtained. Attendance will be assessed on the basis of the exercises carried out to achieve 75% of the laboratory.
The final evaluation (in thirtieths)  includes the exercises carried out during the laboratory as homeworks, the practical exam and the presentation of the plug-in.


The final grade (in thirtieths) will be the weighted arithmetic mean of the points obtained in the two modules.




Support activities

For the Imaging module weekly homework sets will be assigned, and their solution will be posted and (if time allows) discussed in class.



Neuroanatomy module:

Introduction to the course. General and Anatomical Nomenclature.

Endocrine system: hormone and receptor. Hypothalamus, pituitary gland. Epiphysis. Thyroid. Parathyroids. Pancreas. Adrenal gland. Gonads.

The integument Apparatus: skin, skin appendages, vascularization and innervation, the sensorial receptors.

Nervous system: identification, nomenclature, development, spinal cord. Brainstem, cerebellum; diencephalon; telencephalon (cortex and basal ganglia). General sensorial pathway. The special senses. Motor tract. Cranial Nerves. Spinal nerves. Autonomic nervous system.


Imaging module:

Microscopy and Digital Imaging theory
Imaging techniques: light and electron microscopy, sample preparation
Image processing, artifacts and correction filters
Introduction to ImageJ, iLastik and Blender
3D reconstructions and morphometric analysis with ImageJ and Blender
Statistical Analysis


Suggested readings and bibliography



Martini et al. Anatomia Umana, IV edizione - Edises;
Seeley et al. Anatomia, II edizione - Idelson Gnocchi

Seeley's - Anatomy & Physiology - Mc Graw Hill Editors

Saladin - Human Anatomy - Mc Graw Hill Editors

Gilroy - Anatomy - An essential textbook - Thieme Editor


There is no specific textbook for this course. For basic and general reference, see The Image Processing Handbook, 6th edition by J.C. Russ

NeuroMorph: A Toolset for the Morphometric Analysis and Visualization of 3D Models Derived from Electron Microscopy Image Stacks

A Method for 3D Reconstruction and Virtual Reality Analysis of Glial and Neuronal Cells





Class schedule

Notes: See the timetable at the Class Schedule Page

Last update: 05/09/2022 12:50
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